# Mathematics (MATH)

**Applied Analysis I**

Measure Theory and Lebesgue Integration; Metric Spaces and Contraction Mapping Theorem, Normed Spaces; Banach Spaces; Hilbert Spaces.

**Prerequisite(s):**MATH 400 with min. grade of C or Graduate standing

**Lecture:**3

**Lab:**0

**Credits:**3

**Applied Analysis II**

Bounded Linear Operators on a Hilbert Space; Spectrum of Bounded Linear Operators; Fourier Series; Linear Differential Operators and Green's Functions; Distributions and the Fourier Transform; Differential Calculus and Variational Methods.

**Prerequisite(s):**MATH 500 with min. grade of C

**Lecture:**3

**Lab:**0

**Credits:**3

**Partial Differential Equations**

Basic model equations describing wave propagation, diffusion and potential functions; characteristics, Fourier transform, Green function, and eigenfunction expansions; elementary theory of partial differential equations; Sobolev spaces; linear elliptic equations; energy methods; semigroup methods; applications to partial differential equations from engineering and science.

**Prerequisite(s):**MATH 461 with min. grade of C or MATH 489 with min. grade of C or Graduate standing

**Lecture:**3

**Lab:**0

**Credits:**3

**Ordinary Differential Equations and Dynamical Systems**

Basic theory of systems of ordinary differential equations; equilibrium solutions, linearization and stability; phase portraits analysis; stable unstable and center manifolds; periodic orbits, homoclinic and heteroclinic orbits; bifurcations and chaos; nonautonomous dynamics; and numerical simulation of nonlinear dynamics.

**Lecture:**3

**Lab:**0

**Credits:**3

**Complex Analysis**

Analytic functions, contour integration, singularities, series, conformal mapping, analytic continuation, multivalued functions.

**Prerequisite(s):**MATH 402 with min. grade of C or Graduate standing

**Lecture:**3

**Lab:**0

**Credits:**3

**Mathematical Modeling**

The course provides a systematic approach to modeling applications from areas such as physics and chemistry, engineering, biology, and business (operations research). The mathematical models lead to discrete or continuous processes that may be deterministic or stochastic. Dimensional analysis and scaling are introduced to prepare a model for study. Analytic and computational tools from a broad range of applied mathematics will be used to obtain information about the models. The mathematical results will be compared to physical data to assess the usefulness of the models. Credit may not be granted for both MATH 486 and MATH 522.

**Lecture:**3

**Lab:**0

**Credits:**3

**Case Studies and Project Design in Applied Mathematics**

The goal of the course is for students to learn how to use applied mathematics methods and skills to analyze real-world problems and to communicate their results in a non-academic setting. Students will work in groups of 2 or 3 to study and analyze problems and then provide useful information to a potential client. The time distribution is flexible and includes discussions of problems, presentation of needed background material and the required reports, and presentations by the teams. Several small projects will be examined and reported on.

**Prerequisite(s):**MATH 522

**Credit:**Variable

**Statistical Models and Methods**

Concepts and methods of gathering, describing and analyzing data including statistical reasoning, basic probability, sampling, hypothesis testing, confidence intervals, correlation, regression, forecasting, and nonparametric statistics. No knowledge of calculus is assumed. This course is useful for graduate students in education or the social sciences. This course does not count for graduation in any mathematics program. Credit given only for one of the following: MATH 425, MATH 476, or MATH 525.

**Lecture:**3

**Lab:**0

**Credits:**3

**Machine Learning in Finance: From Theory to Practice**

The purpose of this course is to introduce students to the theory and application of supervised and reinforcement learning to big data problems in finance. This course emphasizes the various mathematical frameworks for applying machine learning in quantitative finance, such as quantitative risk modeling with kernel learning and optimal investment with reinforcement learning. Neural networks are used to implement many of these mathematical frameworks in finance using real market data.

**Prerequisite(s):**MATH 475

**Lecture:**3

**Lab:**0

**Credits:**3

**Applied and Computational Algebra**

Basics of computation with systems of polynomial equations, ideals in polynomial rings; solving systems of equations by Groebner bases; introduction to elimination theory; algebraic varieties in affine n-space; Zariski topology; dimension, degree, their computation and theoretical consequences.

**Lecture:**3

**Lab:**0

**Credits:**3

**Linear Algebra**

Matrix algebra, vector spaces, norms, inner products and orthogonality, determinants, linear transformations, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, Cayley-Hamilton theorem, matrix factorizations (LU, QR, SVD).

**Prerequisite(s):**MATH 332 with min. grade of C or Graduate standing

**Lecture:**3

**Lab:**0

**Credits:**3

**Optimization I**

Introduction to both theoretical and algorithmic aspects of linear optimization: geometry of linear programs, simplex method, anticycling, duality theory and dual simplex method, sensitivity analysis, large scale optimization via Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition and Benders decomposition, interior point methods, network flow problems, integer programming. Credit may not be given for both MATH 435 and MATH 535.

**Prerequisite(s):**MATH 332 with min. grade of C or Graduate standing

**Lecture:**3

**Lab:**0

**Credits:**3

**Probability**

Random events and variables, probability distributions, sequences of random variables, limit theorems, conditional expectations, and martingales.

**Prerequisite(s):**MATH 475 with min. grade of C and (MATH 400 with min. grade of C or Graduate standing)

**Lecture:**3

**Lab:**0

**Credits:**3

**Stochastic Processes**

This is an introductory course in stochastic processes. Its purpose is to introduce students into a range of stochastic processes, which are used as modeling tools in diverse field of applications, especially in the business applications. The course introduces the most fundamental ideas in the area of modeling and analysis of real World phenomena in terms of stochastic processes. The course covers different classes of Markov processes: discrete and continuous-time Markov chains, Brownian motion, and diffusion processes. It also presents some aspects of stochastic calculus with emphasis on the application to financial modeling and financial engineering.

**Prerequisite(s):**(MATH 332 with min. grade of C or MATH 333 with min. grade of C or Graduate standing) and (MATH 475 with min. grade of C or Graduate standing)

**Lecture:**3

**Lab:**0

**Credits:**3

**Stochastic Analysis**

This course will introduce the student to modern finite dimensional stochastic analysis and its applications. The topics will include: a) an overview of modern theory of stochastic processes, with focus on semimartingales and their characteristics, b) stochastic calculus for semimartingales, including Ito formula and stochastic integration with respect to semimartingales, c) stochastic differential equations (SDE's) driven by semimartingales, with focus on stochastic SDE's driven by Levy processes, d) absolutely continuous changes of measures for semimartingales, e) some selected applications.

**Prerequisite(s):**MATH 540 with min. grade of C

**Lecture:**3

**Lab:**0

**Credits:**3

**Stochastic Dynamics**

This course is about modeling, analysis, simulation and prediction of dynamical behavior of complex systems under random influences. The mathematical models for such systems are in the form of stochastic differential equations. It is especially appropriate for graduate students who would like to use stochastic methods in their research, or to learn these methods for long term career development. Topics include white noise and colored noise, stochastic differential equations, random dynamical systems, numerical simulation, and applications to scientific, engineering and other areas.

**Lecture:**3

**Lab:**0

**Credits:**3

**Stochastic Partial Differential Equations**

This course introduces various methods for understanding solutions and dynamical behaviors of stochastic partial differential equations arising from mathematical modeling in science, engineering, and other areas. It is designed for graduate students who would like to use stochastic methods in their research or to learn such methods for long term career development. Topics include the following: Random variables; Brownian motion and stochastic calculus in Hilbert spaces; Stochastic heat equation; Stochastic wave equation; Analytical and approximation techniques; Stochastic numerical simulations via Matlab; and applications to science, engineering, and other areas.

**Prerequisite(s):**MATH 540 with min. grade of C or MATH 543 with min. grade of C or MATH 544 with min. grade of C

**Lecture:**3

**Lab:**0

**Credits:**3

**Introduction to Time Series**

This course introduces the basic time series analysis and forecasting methods. Topics include stationary processes, ARMA models, spectral analysis, model and forecasting using ARMA models, nonstationary and seasonal time series models, multivariate time series, state-space models, and forecasting techniques.

**Lecture:**3

**Lab:**0

**Credits:**3

**Mathematical Finance I**

This is an introductory course in mathematical finance. Technical difficulty of the subject is kept at a minimum by considering a discrete time framework. Nevertheless, the major ideas and concepts underlying modern mathematical finance and financial engineering are explained and illustrated.

**Lecture:**3

**Lab:**0

**Credits:**3

**Topology**

Topological spaces, continuous mappings and homeomorphisms, metric spaces and metrizability, connectedness and compactness, homotopy theory.

**Prerequisite(s):**MATH 556 with min. grade of C

**Lecture:**3

**Lab:**0

**Credits:**3

**Discrete Applied Mathematics I**

Graph Theory is the study of mathematical structures underlying the ubiquitous network models occurring in computer science, machine learning and optimization, electrical and computer engineering, physics, chemistry, and social networks. This graduate-level introduction to graph theory lays a rigorous foundation in graph theory through existential and algorithmic problems, structural and extremal results, and applications to science and engineering. Topics include trees, matchings, connectivity, planarity, and coloring. Credit will not be granted for both MATH 553 and MATH 454.

**Lecture:**3

**Lab:**0

**Credits:**3

**Modern Methods in Discrete Applied Mathematics**

A graduate-level course that introduces students in applied mathematics, computer science, natural sciences, and engineering, to the application of modern tools and techniques from various fields of mathematics to existential and algorithmic problems arising in discrete applied math. Probabilistic methods, entropy, linear algebra methods, Combinatorial Nullstellensatz, and Markov chain Monte Carlo, are applied to fundamental problems like Ramsey-type problems, intersecting families of sets, extremal problems on graphs and hypergraphs, optimization on discrete structures, sampling and counting discrete objects, etc.

**Lecture:**3

**Lab:**0

**Credits:**3

**Algebraic and Geometric Methods in Statistics**

Algebraic structures are present in a broad variety of statistical contexts, involving both parametric and non-parametric statistical models for continuous and discrete random variables. A broad range of algebraic tools is used to better understand model structure, improve statistical inference, and explore new classes of models. The course offers an overview of fundamental theoretical constructions relevant to some of the more popular recent applications in the field: exact conditional test for discrete data, likelihood geometry, parameter identifiability and model selection, network models with applications to social sciences and neuroscience, and phylogenetics and tree-based evolutionary models in biology.

**Lecture:**3

**Lab:**0

**Credits:**3

**Mathematical Statistics**

Theory of sampling distributions; principles of data reduction; interval and point estimation, sufficient statistics, order statistics, hypothesis testing, correlation and linear regression; introduction to linear models.

**Lecture:**3

**Lab:**0

**Credits:**3

**Regression**

This course introduces the basic statistical regression models. Topics include simple linear regression, multiple linear regression, least square estimates of parameters; hypothesis testing and confidence intervals in linear regression, testing of models, data analysis and appropriateness of models, generalized linear models. Students are expected to use software packages (R, Python, etc.) to analyze real data. Credit may not be granted for both MATH 484 and MATH 564. (3-0-3)

**Prerequisite(s):**MATH 474 with min. grade of C or MATH 476 with min. grade of C or MATH 563 with min. grade of C

**Lecture:**3

**Lab:**0

**Credits:**3

**Monte Carlo Methods**

This course teaches students Monte Carlo simulation techniques, focusing on applications in financial risk management, uncertainty quantification, and Bayesian inference. These sampling methods are used to compute the expected values, quantiles, and densities. Advanced techniques, such as Quasi-Monte Carlo methods and Markov chain Monte Carlo, are covered.

**Lecture:**3

**Lab:**0

**Credits:**3

**Multivariate Analysis**

Random vectors, sample geometry and random sampling, generalized variance, multivariate normal and Wishart distributions, estimation of mean vector, confidence region, Hotelling's T-square, covariance, principal components, factor analysis, discrimination, clustering.

**Prerequisite(s):**MATH 532 with min. grade of C and MATH 564 with min. grade of C and MATH 563 with min. grade of C

**Lecture:**3

**Lab:**0

**Credits:**3

**Advanced Design of Experiments**

Basic concepts for experimental design; introductory regression analysis; experiments with a single factor; experiments with more than one factor; full factorial experiments at two levels; fractional factorial design at two levels; full and fractional factorial design at three levels and at mixed levels; response surface methodology; introduction to computer experiments and space-filling design.

**Prerequisite(s):**MATH 474 with min. grade of C or MATH 476 with min. grade of C or Graduate standing

**Lecture:**3

**Lab:**0

**Credits:**3

**Topics in Statistics**

Categorical data analysis, contingency tables, log-linear models, nonparametric methods, sampling techniques.

**Prerequisite(s):**MATH 563 with min. grade of C

**Lecture:**3

**Lab:**0

**Credits:**3

**Statistical Learning**

The wealth of observational and experimental data available provides great opportunities for us to learn more about our world. This course teaches modern statistical methods for learning from data, such as regression, classification, kernel methods, and support vector machines.

**Prerequisite(s):**(MATH 474 with min. grade of C or MATH 475 with min. grade of C or Graduate standing) and (MATH 350 with min. grade of C or Graduate standing)

**Lecture:**3

**Lab:**0

**Credits:**3

**Data Preparation and Analysis**

This course surveys industrial and scientific applications of data analytics with case studies including exploration of ethical issues. Students will learn how to prepare data for analysis, perform exploratory data analysis, and develop meaningful data visualizations. They will work with a variety of real world data sets and learn how to prepare data sets for analysis by cleaning and reformatting. Students will also learn to apply a variety of different data exploration techniques including summary statistics and visualization methods.

**Lecture:**3

**Lab:**0

**Credits:**3

**Data Science Practicum**

In this project-oriented course, students will work in small groups to solve real-world data analysis problems and communicate their results. Innovation and clarity of presentation will be key elements of evaluation. Students will have an option to do this as an independent data analytics internship with an industry partner.

**Prerequisite(s):**SCI 522 with min. grade of C and (CSP 571 with min. grade of C or MATH 571 with min. grade of C)

**Lecture:**3

**Lab:**3

**Credits:**6

**Reliable Mathematical Software**

Many mathematical or statistical problems cannot be solved analytically or by hand in a reasonable amount of time, in which case we turn to mathematical software to solve these problems. Popular examples of general-purpose mathematical software include Python, MATLAB, R, Mathematica, Fortran, and the NAG Library. Researchers often find themselves writing mathematical software to demonstrate their new ideas, or using mathematical software written by others to solve their applications. Recently, the emergence of generative AI tools such as Generative Pre-trained Transformer (GPT) and Copilot can also assist in the prototyping of mathematical software. This course covers the ingredients as well as emerging opportunities and challenges in producing mathematical software that is efficient, robust, and trustworthy. Students will write their own packages or parts of packages to practice the principles of reliable mathematical software.

**Lecture:**1

**Lab:**0

**Credits:**1

**Bayesian Computational Statistics**

Rigorous introduction to the theory of Bayesian statistical inference and data analysis including prior and posterior distributions, Bayesian estimation and testing, Bayesian computation theories and methods, and implementation of Bayesian computation methods using popular statistical software.

**Lecture:**3

**Lab:**0

**Credits:**3

**Statistical Analysis of Financial Data**

The objective of this course is to introduce students to modern data analysis used in the financial industry, and to provide students with the necessary statistical toolkit to analyze and extract information from financial data. An important part of the course is the implementation of those statistical methods via Python/R, using real market data.

**Prerequisite(s):**MATH 474

**Lecture:**3

**Lab:**0

**Credits:**3

**Computational Mathematics I**

Fundamentals of matrix theory; least squares problems; computer arithmetic, conditioning and stability; direct and iterative methods for linear systems; nonlinear systems. Credit may not be granted for both Math 577 and Math 477. Prerequisite: An undergraduate numerical course, such as MATH 350 or instructor permission.

**Prerequisite(s):**MATH 350 with min. grade of C or Graduate standing

**Lecture:**3

**Lab:**0

**Credits:**3

**Computational Mathematics II**

Polynomial interpolation; numerical integration; numerical solution of initial value problems for ordinary differential equations by single and multi-step methods, Runge-Kutta, Predictor-Corrector; numerical solution of boundary value problems, and eigenvalue problems. Credit may not be granted for both MATH 578 and MATH 478.

**Prerequisite(s):**MATH 350 with min. grade of C or Graduate standing

**Lecture:**3

**Lab:**0

**Credits:**3

**Finite Element Method**

Various elements, error estimates, discontinuous Galerkin methods, methods for solving system of linear equations including multigrid. Applications.

**Prerequisite(s):**MATH 350 with min. grade of C or MATH 489 with min. grade of C or Graduate standing

**Lecture:**3

**Lab:**0

**Credits:**3

**Mathematical Finance II**

This course is a continuation of Math 485/548. It introduces the student to modern continuous time mathematical finance. The major objective of the course is to present main mathematical methodologies and models underlying the area of financial engineering, and, in particular, those that provide a formal analytical basis for valuation and hedging of financial securities.

**Prerequisite(s):**(MATH 485 with min. grade of C or MATH 548 with min. grade of C) and (MATH 481 with min. grade of C or MATH 542 with min. grade of C)

**Lecture:**3

**Lab:**0

**Credits:**3

**Wealth management and robo-advising**

This course covers fundamental concepts from modern wealth management industry and design of robo-advising systems. The course builds upon Modern Portfolio Theory, CAPM and their dynamic counterparts. A significant part of the course is dedicated to analysis, modeling and practical implementation of a robo-advising system using Python and real-market data.

**Lecture:**3

**Lab:**0

**Credits:**3

**Mathematical Methods for Algorithmic Trading**

This course is concerned with the design and implementation of trading strategies. In particular, it covers the mean-variance portfolio selection problem, utility maximization, pairs trading, market making, and optimal liquidation. The analysis includes such important features as: the construction and usage of predictive signals, finding a tradeoff between risk and return, accounting for transaction costs and market impact. The available mathematical tools and models are presented in each case, and they include: methods for solving constrained optimization problems, stochastic control and dynamic programming principle, time-series analysis. An important part of the course is the implementation of trading algorithms via Python, using real market data. (3-0-3)

**Prerequisite(s):**(MATH 481 with min. grade of C or MATH 542 with min. grade of C or MATH 543 with min. grade of C or MATH 475 with min. grade of C or MATH 474 with min. grade of C or MATH 540 with min. grade of C) and (MATH 484* or MATH 546* with min. grade of C or MATH 563* with min. grade of C or MATH 564* with min. grade of C or MATH 476* or MATH 446* or MATH 426*), An asterisk (*) designates a course which may be taken concurrently.

**Lecture:**3

**Lab:**0

**Credits:**3

**Decentralized Financial Engineering**

Decentralized finance (DeFI) is one of the fastest growing areas of finance and relies on blockchains, such as Ethereum, to provide decentralized applications for financial services. The purpose of this course is to equip students with engineering knowledge of DeFI markets and the ability to create models of token behaviour (tokenomics) and market microstructure in addition to gain familiarity with the tooling for implementing smart contracts.

**Lecture:**3

**Lab:**0

**Credits:**3

**Theory and Practice of Fixed Income Modeling**

The course covers basics of the modern interest rate modeling and fixed income asset pricing. The main goal is to develop a practical understanding of the core methods and approaches used in practice to model interest rates and to price and hedge interest rate contingent securities. The emphasis of the course is practical rather than purely theoretical. A fundamental objective of the course is to enable the students to gain a hands-on familiarity with and understanding of the modern approaches used in practice to model interest rate markets.

**Prerequisite(s):**(MATH 481* with min. grade of C or MATH 542 with min. grade of C) and (MATH 485 with min. grade of C or MATH 548 with min. grade of C), An asterisk (*) designates a course which may be taken concurrently.

**Lecture:**3

**Lab:**0

**Credits:**3

**Theory and Practice of Modeling Risk and Credit Derivatives**

This is an advanced course in the theory and practice of credit risk and credit derivatives. Students will get acquainted with structural and reduced form approaches to mathematical modeling of credit risk. Various aspects of valuation and hedging of defaultable claims will be presented. In addition, valuation and hedging of vanilla credit derivatives, such as credit default swaps, as well as vanilla credit basket derivatives, such as collateralized credit obligations, will be discussed.

**Prerequisite(s):**MATH 582 with min. grade of C

**Lecture:**3

**Lab:**0

**Credits:**3

**Advanced Quantitative Risk Management**

This is an advanced course on quantitative risk management. The major concepts and ideas from the modern risk management will be explained and illustrated. The course builds upon general theory of risk measures and performance measures and addresses the current regulatory requirements for market participants.

**Prerequisite(s):**MATH 548 with min. grade of C

**Lecture:**3

**Lab:**0

**Credits:**3

**Numerical Methods for Partial Differential Equations**

This course introduces numerical methods, especially the finite difference method for solving different types of partial differential equations. The main numerical issues such as convergence and stability will be discussed. It also includes introduction to the finite volume method, finite element method and spectral method. Prerequisite: An undergraduate numerical course such as MATH 350 and a PDE course such as MATH 461 or MATH 489 or consent of instructor.

**Lecture:**3

**Lab:**0

**Credits:**3

**Meshfree Methods**

Fundamentals of multivariate meshfree radial basis function and moving least squares methods; applications to multivariate interpolation and least squares approximation problems; applications to the numerical solution of partial differential equations; implementation in Matlab.

**Lecture:**3

**Lab:**0

**Credits:**3

**Research and Thesis M.S.**

Prerequisite: Instructor permission required.

**Credit:**Variable

**Internship in Applied Mathematics**

The course is for students in the Master of Applied Mathematics program who have an approved summer internship at an outside organization. This course can be used in place of Math 523 subject to the approval of the director of the program.

**Credit:**Variable

**Seminar in Applied Mathematics**

Current research topics presented in the department colloquia and seminars.

**Lecture:**1

**Lab:**0

**Credits:**0

**Professional Master's Project**

The course is part of the capstone experience for students in the Master of Applied Mathematics program. Students will work in groups of 2 or 3 to study and analyze a real-world problem.

**Credit:**Variable

**Reading and Special Projects**

Independent study as a reading course or master's project with a faculty member in Mathematics. Letter grading. May be taken more than once. Instructor permission required.

**Credit:**Variable

**TA Training**

This course provides the foundation of how to teach mathematics in the context of introductory undergraduate courses. The course is designed to encourage participation and cooperation among the graduate students, to help them prepare for a career in academia, and to help convey the many components of effective teaching.

**Lecture:**1

**Lab:**0

**Credits:**0

**Advanced Topics in Combinatorics**

Course content is variable and reflects current research in combinatorics.

**Prerequisite(s):**MATH 554 with min. grade of C

**Lecture:**3

**Lab:**0

**Credits:**3

**Advanced Topics in Graph Theory**

Course content is variable and reflects current research in graph theory.

**Prerequisite(s):**MATH 554 with min. grade of C

**Lecture:**3

**Lab:**0

**Credits:**3

**Advanced Topics in Computational Mathematics**

Course content is variable and reflects current research in computational mathematics.

**Prerequisite(s):**MATH 578 with min. grade of C

**Lecture:**3

**Lab:**0

**Credits:**3

**Advanced Topics in Applied Analysis**

Course content is variable and reflects current research in applied analysis.

**Prerequisite(s):**MATH 501 with min. grade of C

**Lecture:**3

**Lab:**0

**Credits:**3

**Advanced Topics in Stochastics**

Course content is variable and reflects current research in stochastic.

**Prerequisite(s):**MATH 544 with min. grade of C

**Lecture:**3

**Lab:**0

**Credits:**3

**Research and Thesis Ph.D.**

(Credit: Variable)

**Credit:**Variable

**Linear Regression**

This is an introductory course on regression analysis. Topics include simple and multiple linear regression models, least square estimates of parameters, hypothesis testing, and confidence intervals. Students are expected to use software packages like R to analyze data.

**Lecture:**1

**Lab:**0

**Credits:**1

**Model Diagnostics and Remedial Measures**

In this course, we will examine the situation when the assumptions of the regression model have been violated and how to remediate them.

**Lecture:**1

**Lab:**0

**Credits:**1

**Variable Selection, Model Validation, and Nonlinear Regression**

In this course, we will examine the variable selection procedures, logistic regression and generalized linear model.

**Lecture:**1

**Lab:**0

**Credits:**1